Advice comes from Robert Hoberman (personal communication). So it appears to be broadly affiliate of one’s Jewish languages out-of a number of other metropolitan areas from the part also, in addition to Aqra and you can Rawanduz.
Yet not, inside dialect there’s an extremely uncommon changes regarding h in order to h in the 3rd people one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’
Azerbaijan (Azer): The words of Jews off Iranian Azerbaijan, along with organizations within the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you can Yuksekova. Info is regarding Garbell (1965).
Halabja (Hala): The language of one’s Jews out of Halabja towards Iran-Iraq border. This is very near the Jewish languages of your most other locations of your area, including Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you may Panjwin. Recommendations arises from my cards.
We are going to contrast such languages pertaining to twenty-four phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and lexical criteria. Following Hetzron (1976, 98), i have selected merely innovations given that requirements getting class. I have picked a good disproportionate number of morphological standards, and in addition we shall let them have special weight, again following the Hetzron, however, other shared designs could well be considered as well.
Note and the more challenging conservation plus installation off when you look at the Koy Sanjaq reported by Hoberman (1985)
As we compare new dialects from NENA we’re going to make an effort to dictate the extent to which the newest languages display a definite development and that is different from Turoyo and you may Mandaic. Meanwhile, we are going to look for packages from isoglosses inside NENA.
(1) Worry tends to be penultimate in every the newest NA dialects, also Turoyo and you may Mandaic but not on the about three easternmost Jewish languages, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you will Halabja, which stress the very last syllable. These dialects take a look, such as this, like in many more (Garbell 1965), to show an abnormally solid influence out-of Kurdish.
(2) All of the NENA languages have combined h and you will x. For the Hertevin the result is h, and you can everywhere otherwise it is x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]a good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)
One another Turoyo and you can Mandaic retain separate h and you will x. Particular NENA dialects enjoys reintroduced h just like the a borrowing regarding Kurdish otherwise Arabic or away from Traditional Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) Although not, the latest passed on code consistently shows x. Such as for instance, from inside the Tisqopa you’ll find lent Arabic terms and conditions, such sahabi ‘friend’, having h, however, handed down terminology such as for instance laxma ‘bread’ continuously inform you x. (6)
(3) All the NENA dialects but Hertevin and you may Zakho have lost very era away from passed on. Including, during the Aradhin we find arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ equal to Syriac arb good and you can afra. Inside Hertevin plus Zakho, handed down is actually on a regular basis ?: Hertevin thus?an excellent ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 189). A number of other dialects most are kept because ?, and you can, in the other individuals, is fully gone totally. Certain dialects has actually reintroduced lent regarding Arabic or Kurdish. Such as, Halabja features ayza ‘good’.
(4) During the before languages out-of Aramaic, such as Tiberian Hebrew, t turned [Theta] shortly after a great vowel. It alternation might have been lexicalized inside the NENA, with sometimes t otherwise [Theta] distributed compliment of entire paradigms, whether preceded of the good vowel or perhaps not. Including, inside the Aradhin the fresh verb ‘come’ now has [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, and also [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Further, in a few dialects the fresh new phoneme [Theta] provides undergone more changes. In a number of dialects [Theta] enjoys combined back to t, and in other people it’s become s otherwise l.(7) In one dialect, Jilu, it has become h right after which become removed except on start of a word. The three easternmost Jewish languages share brand new stunning change of [Theta] to at least one. The outcome ones transform can be seen in the keyword ‘house’ and therefore seems in almost any languages since become:[Thetan effective]a (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and besa (Sanandaj Religious).